This local environment is defined as a LAN (Local Area Network) and it connects multiple devices so that they can create, store and share information with others in the location.
As stated previously, Ethernet cables come as;
– Coaxial cable (which is not very common except in older installations)
– Twisted pair
– Fiber optic
– Category 6 with speeds up to 1 Gbps.
– CAT6a and CAT 7 with speeds up to 10 Gbps.
– Category 5 and 5e cables are both still used in many existing applications but handle the lower speeds between 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps but are more susceptible to noise.
“Full-duplex” in Ethernet can be achieved by using two pairs of wires to allow data to travel both directions simultaneously.
“Gateway” connects two “dissimilar” networks together.
“Bridge” connects two “similar” networks together so that you only see one network.
– The Logical Link Control (LLC)
– The Media Access Control (MAC)
The “Media Access Control” uses hardware addresses that are assigned to Network Interface Cards (NIC) to identify a specific computer or device to show the source and destination of data transmissions.
CSMA/CD is used as a standard for Ethernet to reduce data collisions and increase successful data transmission.
The algorithm first checks to see if there is traffic on the network. If it does not find any, it will send out the first bit of information to see if a collision will occur.
If this first bit is successful, then it will send out the other bits while still testing for collisions.
If a collision occurs, the algorithm calculates a waiting time and then starts the process all over again until the full transmission is complete.
When you use the faster Ethernet in full-duplex modes and incorporate switches, then you are utilizing a star topology between the switch ports and the devices.
This allows for more direct transmission paths and fewer collisions as compared to a bus topology where all devices share the same paths.
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